EVIDENCE BASED

Shared Hemodialysis Care: Transforming Patient Experience

FIGURE 1  |  Shared care tasks

Shared Haemodialysis care tasks
HOME HEMODIALYSIS  

Patients performing hemodialysis at home are effectively fully self-caring. Home hemodialysis is associated with fewer complications, better survival, and improved quality of life compared to in-centre hemodialysis. These observations provide reassurance that in the in-centre setting, undertaking SHC and training patients to perform the treatment themselves are also safe.5 Infection rates and mortality as a result of COVID-19 were significantly worse among in-centre patients compared to home patients. For some, being able to undertake more complex tasks, such as self-cannulation, may lift barriers to moving from the in-centre setting to home. Thus, SHC has the potential to increase opportunities for home hemodialysis uptake.6

PATIENT ACTIVATION   

Patient activation is a modifiable measure of the degree of engagement and sense of control an individual has over their health. It is defined as “an individual’s knowledge, skill, and confidence for managing their health and healthcare.”7 At the lowest level, patients may feel overwhelmed and disengaged, whereas through higher levels they take increasing control of their health. Lower patient activation is associated with poorer outcomes, including hospitalisation and loss of confidence in healthcare providers. In patients with kidney failure, characteristics associated with lower activation are older age, diabetes, and higher levels of deprivation.8 Given that these characteristics are frequently observed, often in combination among in-centre hemodialysis patients, interventions that increase patient activation in this group may help improve outcomes.

SHC has the potential to increase activation by helping patients engage with their treatment at a pace that suits them, overcoming specific fears, promoting self-management, and reducing anxiety using small manageable steps (Figure 2).

FIGURE 2  |  Small steps within shared care provide a framework to unlock potential

Small steps within shared care. The degrees of shared haemodialysis care that lead to becoming fully self-caring.

Source: Wilkie M, Barnes T. Shared hemodialysis care: increasing patient involvement in centerbased dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019;14(9):1402-4.

SHC also offers benefits to healthcare organisations, as patient activation is recognised as a useful strategy for effective management of health resources and has been shown to improve the role of healthcare professionals (Figure 3).9,10 Time saved performing routine tasks, for example, allows nurses to deal with more complex cases and to spend more time educating and supporting patients in a holistic manner.11 Patient and professional satisfaction is also increased as the relationship is expanded to focus on the person, their life, and the patient’s other health problems.12

FIGURE 3  |  Benefits of the SHC model for healthcare organisations

Benefits of the SHC model for healthcare organisations.

HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE POLICY AND GUIDANCE    

The importance of patient involvement in their hemodialysis care has been increasingly recognised by the nephrology community and supported by policy makers. In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance has clearly indicated that patient choice and preferences must be considered throughout.13 NHS England’s service specification stipulates that dialysis providers must offer education about access to shared care training for patients and that this should include opportunities for self-care either in the dialysis facility or in the home.14 At the clinical practice level, the UK Renal Association guidance recommends SHC, recognising the beneficial impact on all domains of health including enhanced safety that comes with education about infection control, equity of access, and patient experience.15 The work of the SHC initiative in the United Kingdom has been adopted by Scarborough Health Network in Canada, who describes it as a change in their dialysis care philosophy.16

Getting It Right First Time (GIRFT) is a national initiative that undertook a comprehensive assessment of nephrology services in the UK to identify areas of unwarranted variation. The final report is expected to be released in 2021. Areas of need already highlighted include home dialysis. Prevalence averaged at 17%, but some renal units had up to 40% while nearly two-thirds of units were below 20% (Figure 4).17 Given these findings, it is anticipated that clear recommendations will be made to increase SHC as a means of standardising and facilitating home dialysis uptake. 

The National Kidney Federation has recommended that renal units in the UK reach a minimum prevalence of 20% of their dialysis population on home dialysis by the end of 2024.18 Clearly, SHC will have to be central to any efforts to reach this target.

FIGURE 4  |  Variation in prevalent home dialysis

 Line graph showing the variation in prevalent home dialysis

Source: National Kidney Federation. Increasing home dialysis in the context of COVID-19 in the UK. Report. January 2021. kidney.org.uk/home-dialysis-campaign#Report.

SHAREHD   

SHAREHD is a quality improvement collaborative of healthcare teams and patients designed to scale up shared hemodialysis care and includes 600 patients across 12 renal units in England.19 Publication of results is expected in 2021. Baseline data revealed variation between units for the number of tasks undertaken by patients and complexity of tasks. A positive association between the number of tasks and patient activation was observed.20 In addition, certain treatment-related tasks that have significant scope for increased uptake were key to becoming independent or transferring to home hemodialysis; one of these was self-cannulation. 

One of the units involved in the original project was Hull Dialysis Centre, the largest NephroCare centre in the UK, caring for approximately 180 patients receiving dialysis. The programme enjoyed significant success and supported a thriving home hemodialysis programme. 

Since 2018, significant efforts have been made to implement SHC throughout the NephroCare network in the UK. A benchmarking exercise in early 2021 (unpublished internal data) revealed that 76% of all NephroCare patients participated in their care at some level, with five clinics reporting over 10% of patients engaging with fi ve or more tasks (Figure 5).

FIGURE 5  |  Shared hemodialysis care participation

 Bar graph of the percent of patients in clinics doing 5 or more tasks

BARRIERS AND ENABLERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SHC  

SHC is not currently standard practice. The reasons for this vary from centre to centre. Results of a study by SHAREHD identifi ed key barriers and enablers to success from both a patient and healthcare professional perspective; our own experience indicates that organisational aspects also had an impact on uptake (Figure 6). Despite this, the importance of collaboration at all levels is clear. A culture of change involving patients and professionals working together is essential, along with a participative approach to education that considers patients’ preferred learning styles. When confidence is low, or ambivalence and resistance are present, motivational interviewing techniques encourage patients to become active participants in the process by evoking their intrinsic motivations for participation.

FIGURE 6  |  SHC barriers and enablers of SHC

Hand hygiene, isolate confirmed cases, social distancing, school closures, limits on gatherings, cleaning shared surfaces

CONCLUSION   

Empowering in-centre hemodialysis patients to become active participants in their care has the potential to enhance overall experience, increase patient activation, and therefore improve clinical, psychological, and social outcomes. There are also signifi cant wider benefi ts to healthcare systems and organisations, including improved recruitment and retention through enhancing staff  morale and job satisfaction, more eff ective use of resources, and reduction in costs associated with avoidable hospital admissions. Implementation is not without its challenges and requires commitment at all levels and a willingness to be fl exible and innovative. Key success factors are collaboration between patients and healthcare professionals, and a paradigm shift from a traditional paternalistic model of care delivery to one of co-production and shared decision making.

Meet The Experts

 

KOLITHA BASNAYAKE, PhD, FRCP
Medical Director, UK and Ireland

References

  1. Fotheringham J, Barnes T, Dunn L, et al. Rationale and design for SHAREHD: a quality improvement collaborative to scale up Shared Haemodialysis Care for patients on centre based haemodialysis. BMC Nephrol 2017;18(1):335. doi: 10.1186/s12882-017-0748-6.
  2. Greene J, Hibbard JH, Sacks R, et al. When patient activation levels change, health outcomes and costs change, too. Health Aff (Millwood) 2015 Mar;34(3):431-7. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0452.
  3. Fotheringham et al. Rationale and design for SHAREHD.
  4. ShareHD and The Health Foundation. Sharing Haemodialysis Care Competency Handbook 2019 (newly revised). https://www.shareddialysis-care.org.uk/sharehd/sharehd-news/new-shared-care-competency-handbook-launched. 
  5. Wilkie M, Barnes T. Shared hemodialysis care: increasing patient involvement in center-based dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Sep 6;14(9):1402-4. doi:10.2215/CJN.02050219.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Hibbard J, Gilburt H. Supporting people to manage their health: an introduction to patient activation. Report. London: The King’s Fund, 2014. https://www.kingsfund. org.uk/sites/default/files/field/field_publication_file/supporting-people-manage-health-patient-activation-may14.pdf.
  8. Wilkie, Barnes. Shared hemodialysis care.
  9. Wanless D. Securing our future health: taking a long-term view. Final report. London: Department of Health, 2002. https://www.yearofcare.co.uk/sites/default/files/images/Wanless.pdf.
  10. Hibbard, Gilburt. Supporting people to manage their health.
  11. Tibbles R, Bovill L, Breen C, Vinen K. Haemodialysis: a self-care service. Nurs Manag 2009 Mar;15(10):28-34. doi: 10.7748/nm2009.03.15.10.28.c6885.
  12. Lewin S, Skea Z, Entwistle V, et al. Interventions for providers to promote a patient-centred approach in clinical consultations. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(4):CD003267. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003267, 4. 
  13. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Renal replacement therapy and conservative management. NICE guideline NG107, published Oct. 3, 2018. nice.org. uk/guidance/ng107. 
  14. NHS England Specialised Services. Service Specifications: A06. Renal Services. england.nhs.uk/commissioning/spec-services/npc-crg/group-a/a06/.
  15. Ashby D, Borman N, Burton J, et al. Renal Association Clinical Practice Guideline on Haemodialysis. BMC Nephrol 2019;20:379. doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1527-3.
  16. Scarborough Health Network. Shared care. https://www.shn.ca/nephrology-and-dialysis/shared-care/. Accessed July 15, 2021.
  17. National Kidney Federation. Increasing home dialysis in the context of COVID-19 in the UK. Feb. 9, 2021. https://issuu.com/nationalkidneyfederationuk/docs/nkf_home_dialysis_webinar_report_final. 
  18. Ibid.
  19. Fotheringham et al. Rationale and design for SHAREHD.
  20. Wilkie, Barnes. Shared hemodialysis care.